Modern Medical Uniforms Have Changed the Way the Doctors Dress Themselves

Medical personnel just can not wear anything or everything while working inside the hospitals and hence, they need to rely on the use of different scrubs, lab coats and smocks to look professional while working. Nursing scrubs are mandatory at work and modern healthcare professionals have a wide range of options to choose from unlike their super seniors.

Hospitals are places where clean environment is a must so that spread of infection can be prevented significantly. Modern doctors have taken lesson from their super seniors who faced really tough time handling patients and operating them. Medical is a profession where doctors have to take immediate decisions and handle one project or patient after another. These repeated movements were the main reason behind spread of infection and disease as doctors used to operate or treat patients without using surgical scrubs. They used to wear a butcher apron to protect the clothes from blood stains and body fluids and sanitation or hygiene was something of no existence.

Now the time has changed and since then various technological advances and innovations have come into existence making it possible to treat patients while preventing the spread of infections. Varieties of nursing scrubs or surgical scrubs are now available to make the doctors look professional while ensuring the health of the patients.

When the surgical scrubs were born, they were of typical green color and even now people assume green colored big clothing item when surgical scrubs are named. However, it is not same now as the design and form of surgical scrubs and nursing scrubs have encountered huge changes. Modern nursing scrubs are chic and trendy refining the way the nurses used to dress themselves in the past. Manufacturers have now started manufacturing nursing attire while emphasizing on modern fashion trends.

Modern nursing outfits are designed in such a way that the wearer can be readily identifiable among the crowd without having to look bore or dull. In fact, modern nursing scrubs and surgical scrubs enhance their looks while providing them all the comfort. Most importantly, the color choice is not restricted only to green but a wide spectrum of colors are into consideration while also allowing the prints to enter, basically in case when the wearer treats little children.

It is quite clear that modern hospital attire has stylized the way the doctors and other healthcare professionals dress themselves while allowing them to maintain proper hygiene and cleanliness inside the hospital premises.

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Would Your Medical Practice Benefit If Insurance Claims Were Paid 3-4 Weeks Earlier?

Would your practice benefit if claims were paid 3-4 weeks earlier? If so, is that kind of performance even possible? Basic knowledge of cash flow and accounts receivable tells us getting paid earlier would increase cash flow. Regarding the “how” question, quantifying the benefits of increased profit, and taking steps to achieve it are the real challenges in an industry which costs are rising and which regulatory climate continuously adds more time and effort just to get paid for services rendered.

A look at the business model of a medical office reveals patient care and patient through-put as top priorities. Excellent patient care is priority one, but that achievement is short-lived if the practice can not meet the cash flow obligations to offset the huge business investment. Once patient through-put levels are acceptable, then accounts receivable becomes the number one business priority without exception. Unfortunately, accounts receivables management, unless assigned to a dedicated unit, may get less attention than it needs in a busy office focused on achieving those first two priorities.

There are good reasons for this common A / R attention gap. Given the complexities of medical coding and billing, insurance claim preparations require time and special skills. The staff members skilled in these areas are often the same ones tasked with managing the office's receivables too. Since most of the staff efforts are spent in getting optimized insurance claims out to the payers, these submitted claims can easily be forgotten. After all, the staff's attentions are always focused on getting more claims filed accurately with the many payers' and their submission requirements.

Once the claims leave the practice they are at the mercy of multiple payers which time frames for paying the practice are not aligned with any practice's cash flow needs. Long forgotten claims can be in process for weeks and then denied for all sorts of reasons, submission errors related to coverage, services, or errors on the part of the payer. Even insurance claims which pass the requirements for payment can remain unpaid due to unpaid work backlogs or audits. No matter the status of the claim, there is no required payer time limit for advising the practice of a claim's status. The onus to get paid absolutely leaves with the practice. In practices already under pressure to decrease costs due to downward reimbursements trends, outsourcing may be an excellent option to effectively manage insurance receivables day after day.

The rules change, however, with 3rd party intervention. Insurance providers have a different set of rules when dealing with a 3rd party. Insurance licensing requirements with the state require priority response to a 3rd party. This knowledge can be used to your advantage and reduce outstanding claims.

Even given all these conditions, it is possible to shorten the overall time frame for insurance reimbursements by several weeks. But, someone has to take a consistent, proactive approach to every claim submitted and address every challenge stated in the most timely and efficient manner. This proactive A / R tracking and follow up must start as soon as the claims leave the practice. Otherwise, the opportunities to increase revenues will remain unfulfilled. Such efforts are best performed by limited receivables management staff, or outsourced to a professional accounts receivable management company whose mission is to drastically shorten the time from insurance claim payments to payment.

As in most business decisions, the benefits (increased profits) of implementing a restricted receivables management program, must outweigh the costs. A review of the practice's A / R days, the statistical measure of the average elapsed time between claims claims and payments over time, can show the cash flow benefits of speeding the reimbursements significantly. After that, it is a simple matter to calculate the cost of adding new staff or investing in a partner firm who specializes in insurance receivables management.

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2013 Radiology Coding and Billing Update

Essential updates to safeguard your practice

In 2013 radiology billing and coding will deal mostly with head and neck as has been stated by industry coding experts. As per the implementation from CMS there has been reduction in the number of codes used for radiology and revisions for how various services will be coded. Overall, the coding changes focus on three specific areas: cervical spine, nuclear medicine, and interventional radiology. This decision of the CMS is in continuation to move towards bundling more CPT codes that routinely appear together. In this case, the agency will bundle several codes for services that you perform together at least 75 percent of the time. Several cervicocerebral angiography codes will now be bundled, as well as many transcatherapy therapies infusions for thrombolysis and intravascular foreign body retrieval codes.

Although it's not known how these coding changes will affect your bottom line but to protect reimbursements it is essential to review radiology billing and documentation procedures and the efficiency of coders. Your coding team needs to be well aware of all the changes to ensure your practice is not affected. A convenient way to get relevant information is through audio webinars or coding seminaries. Moreover, fluid communication between the technologist, interventional radiologist, and the hospital's health information management staff will become vital to complete radiology reimbursements.

It's essential to follow Medicare rules, for instance you need to document your services clearly and consistently. It is important to list exam titles and clinical indications separately from finds or impressions. Also descriptions should be brief and should include modality with the exam title. You can also avoid insufficient reimbursements and ensure compliance by including all required details for correct documentation. Radiologists must make themselves as knowledgeable as possible about procedure codes and coding changes.

CTA documentation:

CTA coding can leave even tenured coders confused. Very precise information must be dictated to assist the coder in determining if the procedure was a CT or CTA. The documentation must state that 3D images were present and interpretation for those images must be made in order to comply with a charge for a CTA. This must be used to report angiographic reconstructions as well. Coders need to be careful with accepted terminology in order to determine the correct CPT® code to bill for the services rendered. For CTA, the use of a separate or integrated work station does not need to be indicated.

It is highly essential to have clear and detailed documentation of any medical service performed in medical care. This is because medical reports or records are used to convey the services performed for the patient precisely for timely and accurate reimbursements. Also it can be determined if correct procedure has been performed and billed accordingly. Coders review this information to report the services performed thebyby helping to ensure your practice is compliant. Without the correct information in the report, the procedure you actually performed may not be the procedure billed and this can lead to loss of reimbursements or even audits.

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Osteopathy As a Top Health Care Career Choice

What is Osteopathic Health Care?

The health profession of Osteopathy (founded in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still in the USA) is an established internationally recognized manual medicine system of diagnosis and treatment, which lays its main emphasis on the structural and functional integrity of the musculoskeletal system.

Osteopathic health practitioners use a variety of hands-on physical treatments. These include soft tissue techniques, joint mobilization & manipulation, muscle energy treatment and functional (strain and counter strain) techniques. These techniques are normally employed together with exercise, dietary, and occupational advice in an attempt to help patients recover from pain, disease and injury.

There are two types of osteopaths. European style Osteopaths (also known as osteopathic manual practitioners, manual osteopaths, traditional osteopaths and classical osteopaths) do not prescribe medications or perform surgery, while American style osteopaths (also known as osteopathic doctors) perform surgery and prescribe medications as well as using osteopathic techniques in managing a patient's condition.

Osteopathy as a Career Choice

Osteopathic health care is one of the most complete health care systems in the world. It is a distinct form of medical practice. The practice of manual osteopathy utilizes all available modern manual medicine techniques to assess injury and diseases of muscles, bones, joints and nerves. It also offers the added benefit of hands-on diagnosis and treatment through a system of therapy known as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). Osteopathic manual practitioners understand how all the body's systems are interconnected and how each one affects the others. They focus special attention on the musculoskeletal system, which reflects and influences the condition of all other body systems.

Osteopathy is the fastest growing health care profession in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Argentina, South Korea, Japan, China, India, Iran & Europe. The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) in a report released in December 2012 and published by the Toronto Star; titled “the Top 25 Occupations in Demand” included manual osteopathy in # 13 of the occupations in demand in Canada.

The average salary for a new manual osteopathy graduate who works as an employee in a health or rehab clinic is generally between $ 30 to $ 40 per hour in Europe, Australia, Caribbean and North America and $ 10 to $ 20 in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Manual osteopaths in private osteopathic practice generally charge between $ 90 to $ 140 per hour of treatment in Europe, North America, Australia & Caribbean and $ 20 to $ 60 per hour in Asia, Latin America & Africa.

For patients injured in a motor vehicle related accident in Ontario (Canada) all auto insurers cover osteopathic treatments at the rate of $ 53.66 per hour as per fee guideline set by Financial Services Commission of Ontario (FSCO).

The average income of manual osteopaths in Canada and USA is $ 90,000 per year. In Australia it is $ 78,000 and in United Kingdom (UK) it is 58,000 Euro. The average income of American style osteopathic doctors varies greatly as it depends on the speciality they practice. It is $ 161,000 to $ 576,000 per year.

There is virtually no unemployment in this health care profession. Almost all European style osteopaths find employment within a few months upon graduation.

European style osteopaths are found worldwide. There are approximately 4500 osteopaths in United Kingdom (UK), 1500 manual osteopaths in Canada, 1000 manual osteopaths in Brazil and 67,000 doctors of osteopathic medicine in the USA, and a few thousands more spread around the world in countries such as Australia, New Zealand , Panama, Colombia, China, Iran, India, South Korea, Japan, Greece, South Africa, Singapore, Vietnam, Venezuela, Latvia, St Martin, Barbados, Jamaica, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Mexico, Russia, Ukraine, Argentina, Pakistan , Israel, Austria, Germany, Portugal, Italy, and Netherlands amongst others. Nearly half of them are women.

The number of osteopaths worldwide has increased exponentially in the past few years largely due to National Academy of Osteopathy making the diploma program in osteopathy available to students worldwide through an online method of education.

Where do Osteopaths work?

European style Osteopaths have the option of opening their own manual osteopathy clinics; Egypt to rent rooms in established medical, health or rehab clinics and benefit from cross referrals; or to work as employees in other osteopathic, medical, chiropractic, physiotherapy, athletic therapy, massage or rehab clinics.

Most osteopathic manual practitioners work in private osteopathy clinics, often as sole proprietor, associate or employee. However, the increase in multidisciplinary health care facilities and physical rehabilitation clinics in Canada, USA, Australia & United Kingdom has opened new opportunities for osteopathic manual practitioners to cooperate with other health care professionals (such as family physicians, chiropractors, registered massage therapists, naturopaths , athletic therapists, kinesiologists, podiatrists, chiropodists, occupational therapists, ergonomists, and physiotherapists) and benefit patients with interprofessional care. A small numbers of osteopaths also work in hospitals, nursing homes, health spas, sports teams, insurance companies claims services department, fitness clubs, osteopathic colleges, motor vehicle accident (MVA) assessment centers and other institutions.

Most new graduates start their professional work as employees. Later they establish their own private clinics.

Becoming an Osteopath

To become an osteopath one must graduates from an accredited osteopathic school, college or university. The programs vary in length and diplomas and degrees offered. The diploma programs are generally between 1000 to 2000 hours and the degree programs between 3000 to 4500 hours. The time it takes to graduate depends on the osteopathy program and ranges from 4 months to 4 years.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 4200 hours (4 years) of osteopathic education for students without previous health education and 1000 hours (1 year) for students with previous health education. However WHO guideline is voluntary and not mandatory. It is not a requirement to follow the WHO guideline. Some osteopathic schools follow the WHO guideline voluntarily.

The diplomas and degrees offered by osteopathic schools, colleges & universities include:

– MPH (O) – Master of Public Health (Osteopathy)

– DO – Doctor of Osteopathy BSc (O) – Bachelor of Science in Osteopathy

– DOMP – Diploma in Osteopathic Manual Practice

– MO – Master of Osteopathy

– MSc (O) – Master of Science in Osteopathy

– FOCORS – Fellow of Ontario College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

– FACORS – Fellow of Alberta College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

– FFCCORS – Fellow of British Columbia College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

– DCMOEB – Diplomate of the Canadian Manual Osteopathy Examining Board

– DIOEB – Diplomate of the International Osteopathy Examining Board

The Council on Manual Osteopathy Education (CMOE) of the International Osteopathic Association has accredited the following osteopathic schools, colleges & universities which provide diploma and degree programs in osteopathy:

Online Osteopathic Education Worldwide:

• National University of Medical Sciences

• National Academy of Osteopathy

Campus Based Osteopathic Education:

• Buenos Aires School of Osteopathy (Argentina)

• Instituto Argentina de Osteopatía (Argentina)

• Osterreiches Osteopathie Kolleg (Austria)

• RMIT University (Australia)

• University of Western Sydney (Australia)

• Victoria University (Australia)

• Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia (Australia)

• Escola Brasileira De Osteopatia (Brazil)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (Canada, Program offered online worldwide & campus based)

• Collège d'Études Ostéopathiques (Canada)

• Center Ostéopathique du Québec (Canada)

• Canadian College of Osteopathy (Canada)

• Canadian Academy of Osteopathy and Holistic Health Sciences (Canada)

• Southern Ontario College of Osteopathy (Canada)

• The Osteopathic College of Ontario (Canada)

• British College of Osteopathic Medicine (England)

• British School of Osteopathy (England)

• College of Osteopaths (England)

• European School of Osteopathy (England)

• London School of Osteopathy (England)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (England)

• London College of Osteopathic Medicine (England)

• Oxford Brookes University (England)

• Center Europeen d'Enseignement Superieur de l'Osteopathie (France)

• Institut de Formation en Ostéopathie du Grand-Avignon (France)

• Osterreiches Osteopathie Kolleg (Germany)

• Deutsches Osteopathie Kolleg (Germany)

• Istituto Superiore di Osteopatia – Milano (Italy)

• Unitec (New Zealand)

• Russian School of Osteopathic Medicine (Russia)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (South Korea)

• Swiss International College of Osteopathy (Switzerland)

• Madrid School of Osteopathy (Spain)

• National University of Medical Sciences (Spain, program offered online worldwide & campus based)

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

Osteopathic Care & Treatments

A number of researchers have shown patients who have low back pain of mechanical origin are most satisfied with osteopathic treatments.

Dr. Lee Choi, MD, an osteopathy student of National Academy of Osteopathy has completed a research project as his thesis towards the investigative project requirement of course TH 980 of the diploma in manual osteopathy program.

Dr. Choi's research analyzed 100 patients' response to low back pain treatments performed by manual osteopaths, registered massage therapists, chiropractors, physiotherapists, acupuncturists and physicians.

Patients who received European style osteopathic treatment had the highest rate of satisfaction with their treatments, followed by chiropractic, massage therapy, physiotherapy, acupuncture and medicine.

Over 95% of the patients surveyed who received osteopathic treatments indicated great satisfaction with their treatments, followed by 91% who received chiropractic treatments, 86% by those who received massage therapy, 75% by those who received physiotherapy, 60% by those who received acupuncture and 30% by those who received medical care for their low back pain.

This research confirms result of previous research indicating that patients favor manual osteopathy treatment above all other available treatments for low back pain of mechanical origin and that osteopathy is the number one health care system of choice for them whenever they suffer from low back pain.

World Osteopathy Day

As a result of tireless work of the world famous osteopath, Dr Shahin Pourgol, president of the National University of Medical Sciences & the National Academy of Osteopathy for suggesting a World Osteopathy Day and collaboration between National Academy of Osteopathy, International Osteopathic Association, Canadian Manual Osteopathy Examining Board, and a number of other organizations, manual osteopaths, and osteopathy students, June 22nd has been chosen and named “World Osteopathy Day”.

For over 130 years the health profession of osteopathy has done so much to help human beings have a better quality of life and it deserves a day of its own as recognition of its contribution to human society worldwide.

At 10AM on June 22, 1874 in Baldwin, Kansas (USA), the 46 years old physician, Dr Andrew Taylor Still founded osteopathy. Dr Shahin Pourgol recommended this day in oppose to Dr Still's date of birth (August 06, 1828) as the World Osteopathy Day and his suggestion was accepted by the majority.

Dr Pourgol is bringing a private member bill to the Canadian parliament to request the government of Canada exclusively recognize June 22nd as the World Osteopathy Day.

International Osteopathic Association has committed to do the same with parliaments of a number of other countries in Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa.

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The Challenges Facing Medical Practices Today: Maximizing Cash Flow Is Necessary

A review of the financial status of any industry will reveal costs associated with government regulation, but few areas are affected as much as the accounts receivable of private medical practices. The need for prioritizing a practice's cash flow, through professional accounts receivable management, has never been greater. At the very least, practices have to consider obtaining as much of the patient component of the charges as possible at time of service. It may also be timely for practices to consider outsourcing some, or all, of the “back office” tasks associated with insurance and patient balance collections, especially since companies that provide such services are at least as professional and patient sensitive as the best in- house office staffers.

For years healthcare providers have experienced the mandatory Medicare SGR (sustainable growth rate) threat of specific fee reductions, possibly as much as 26% or more. Other looming potential reimbursements reasons can be found as part of the planned emigration to EHR (electronic health records) systems and ACOs (accounting care organizations), which are part of the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.” Under the increased effort required by government payers (eg Medicare, Medicaid), the private insurance claims reimbursements process is almost as much of a maze to navigate as government. It is clear that no business entity has to work as diligently as healthcare to get paid for its services. Moreover, the specialized skill level of the people needed to insure timely reimbursement is increasing. For the small to medium practice, it is becoming difficult to employ that level of staff. For these reasons, outsourcing the cash flow responsibility is becoming one of the best ways to increase profits in the medical office.

Who are these outsourcing companies, and where are they located? Contrary to popular belief, the best outsourcers for AR follow-up are located in this country, not off-shore. They have highly trained and motivated staff and they provide measurable results. That feature contrasts them most favorably to some of the 9-5 office staffers available to most practices, and can actually help decrease expenses associated with running an office, small or large. Cash flow, after all, is the prime motivation for these outsourcers to serve medical offices. And, increasing cash flow is one of the only weapons a medical practice can wield in the face of potential downturns in revenues that some of these regulatory measures can create.

More medical offices are beginning to see the upside of outsourcing and are learning that there is little, if any, downside. Their expertise in securing timely payment starts with their help in suggesting and streamlining front office “pre-screening” procedures to eliminate the potential delivery of services without assurance of payment. Then, with a team of experts focused on nothing but tracking proper payment on insurance claims for every service rendered, it is difficult to imagine a downside, particularly when expenses can actually decrease as revenue and profits increase.

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Doctors Want You to Advocate for Your Healthcare

Anyone who knows me knows of my ongoing knee surgery saga. Doctor after doctor, treatment after treatment – it's frustrating. I'm a healthcare advocate and it's an exasperating experience for me. I can only pray for the people who need help navigating the healthcare system and do not know where to begin.

I recently saw a new orthopedic surgeon because the one I have currently can not seem to understand why I still have pain three months after my surgery. “Well, you do not have anything wrong with you structurally,” he said. “I am unclear as to why you are in pain.” When you are in pain, you do not want to hear that your doctor does not know why. More frustration, and no avenues as to how to treat it.

So I called my insurance company to see if they covered second opinions. They did, and I made an appointment with the new one that my physical therapist recommended.

As the doctor walked in with an eager young intern, he introduced himself and look my hand firmly. It seems like we talked for a while, he did not rush me at all. He took the time to ask me what I felt was wrong and give me his opinion about my knee issues. He gave me a new diagnosis and some new different avenues of treatment as well, instead of sitting there with a dumbfounded look on his face. He actually told me that I no longer need a surgeon, that I need a rehab doctor to follow my condition at this time.

Not only that, he asked about me. He wanted to know how my pain affected me and my lifestyle. What my pain kept me from doing. When he asked me about my career, I told him that I was a healthcare advocate. And do you know what he said?

“I have so many patients that do not speak up during their appointments because they are intimidated by me. I wish patients would ask the questions that they need to and utilize me as their physician. what happens? ”

This plea is coming from a doctor. Physicians want active patients that want to take part in their care (at least the doctors without an ego). Prepare for your appointments and get the most out of them.

Here are some ways to prepare for your appointment and utilize your doctor:

  • prepare your questions and concerns before your appointment
  • make sure you bring a photo ID, your insurance card and any copayment
  • speak with the doctor about your concerns and ask all the questions that you have
  • let the doctor discuss with you what they think is going on
  • if you are diagnosed with something, ask why that diagnosis was chosen
  • if the doctor prescribes a medication for you, ask why that medication was chosen and about its potential side effects
  • do not let fear or intimidation keep you from the goal of getting your best healthcare

Any doctor that you see should be happy that you are an active patient. If they're not happy, then find another doctor that respects your opinion and wants to have you take in active role in your care.

Check out the ratings on your doctor at !

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What Is a Colloid?

A colloid is a type of mixture in which one substance is dispersed through another.

A colloidal system has two separate phases; one is the medium in which the colloid is dispersed, and the other is the 'dispersed phase' particle. Various names are given to the different kinds colloids – such as a Sol, an Emulsion and a Gel. Milk, for example, is an emulsified colloid, consisting of liquid butterfat globules dispersed in water. Colloidal Silver is, by this definition, a Sol (A solid dispersed in a liquid) – however, there is a special name given to a colloidal system where the colloid particles are dispensed in water – a Hydrocolloid. The colloid in this case is a Sol, and so the name Hydrosol may be applied.

The dispersed phase particles have a diameter of between approximately 1 and 200 nanometers. Such particles are normally invisible to an optical microscope, although their presence can be confirmed using an electron microscope. The image below is an example picture of colloidal silver made using the PyraMed Colloidal Silver Generator, taken by an electron microscope at Leeds University in 2011:

Notice the scale reading on the bottom left, where the line represents a distance of 10 nm. This shows the particles to be between approximately 2 nm and 8 nm in diameter.

Optical and Electrical Properties of Colloids

Optical Properties

Colloidal solutions always show a slight turbidity (cloudy – not clear) If a strong ray of light is passed through the colloid, its path may be seen as a bright band. This is known as the 'Tyndall Effect', and it is possible to see this in the PyraMed. When the concentration of silver exceeds 5 ppm, a high intensity white LED on the underside of the unit is automatically switched on the by control software. The Tyndall Effect can be seen, and is particularly noticeable at the end of the production cycle, after the colloid has become even more dispersed (see this in a darkened room for best effect).

Most inorganic hydrosols, especially metals, form colored solutions above a certain concentration. Eg silver hydrosols are yellow or brown; Platinum hydrosols are greenish brown, gold hydrosols are red. However, at high magnifications individual particle colors are not uniform.

Electrical Properties

If two electrodes are placed in a solution of a hydrosol as free as possible of electrolytes (a liquid or gel which contains ions), and a current is allowed to pass through, we immediately notice the movement of the colloid to one of the electrodes. Due to the placement of the Tynall LED on the PyraMed, this is clearly seen.

The movements of suspensions and hydrosols against the water, under the influence of the electric current, is called electrophoresis. The direction of motion depends upon the nature of the colloid – suspensions of clay, for example, migrate to the anode, while colloidal metal particles migrate to the cathode. Hydrophile colloids (aluminum for example) show no definite recognizable direct tenderness. It is assumed in the above, that no electrolytes are present – as is the case when using distilled water.

The colloid particles behaved like ions, and their speed of migration (mobility) is similar in rate. Measurements of the speed of migration, together with knowledge of particle size, for colloidal silver, has shown that the particles were charged with the equivalent of 62 electron units. Such a particle may be thought of as an ion with 62 valencies (Zsigmondy).

The electrophoretic mobility μ is defined as:

μ = V / E

where v is the particle velocity


E is the electric field strength

(Next time; The Double Layer and the Zeta Potential)

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What Makes ICS Work So Smooth?

Emergencies can occur anywhere and at any time. Therefore, it is essential to have a system which can provide required resources, equipment and personnel to the need on time. One such system which helps nursing homes assign staff for different emergency duties and design equipments and supplies for the needy people is known as nursing home incident command system. It's a proven management system and has been successful in different business, military and health practices for so many years.

ICS has proved its efficiency in more than 30 years of emergency and non-emergency situations. It has been tested by all levels of government and the private sector.

The system mainly supports five major functional areas and that are commands, operations, planning, logistics and finance / administration.

Every area has different personnel for its smooth functioning. Let us discuss the hierarchy of the functional officers in ICS:

Incident commander: this person is responsible for organizing and directing the facility's emergency operations. Every direction is given by this person. He orders evacuation and sheltering in place. The incident commander can assume three different functions with the help of command team which includes:

Public information officer: the person acts as a medium between the media and the public for interfacing incident related information requirements. He acts as a conduit for all information which is flowing out from facility related to emergency and facility status. He also supervises any communication needed for family and residents of the victims. There is only one PIO who works under the orders of incident commander.

Liaison officer: the person is a point of contact for external agencies, organizations, private entities and other's representatives. They help in conveying information related to facility to these organizations. Any interaction with the state licensing agency, local emergency operations center, the red cross and police also falls under its duties.

Safety officer: he is responsible for monitoring the emergency's impact on facility operations. He will communicate incident commander for operational safety. He also looks after the safety of residents, staff, visitors and other members of the facility.

Operations section chief: this person organizes and directs all activities related to resident care and services, veterinary services, environmental services. These services are meant to take care of the residents and the staff, meet food service needs and manage facility grounds.

Planning section chief: this person collects and analyzes all the information related to the incident across the departments. He collects all information from other section chiefs for doing long range planning in coordination with the incident commander. With all this information, the chief creates a Facility's Incident Action Plan. This plan has general objectives and strategies for the effective management of the incident. The plan is revised after every 8 hours.

Logistics section chief: he is responsible for handling those operations which provides personnel, food, and other supplies to support any facility during an incident.

Finance section chief: his task task is to monitor the use of financial assets. He maintains an account for financial expenditure.

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Information On Liposomic Encapsulation You Should Know

It is vital to know what liposomic encapsulation entails in order for one to appreciate why this mechanism facilitates effective transportation of nutrients within the body. They are bubbles of some kind which are filled with fluid. Their exterior is composed of several phosphate-based head-types that are hydrophilic (water-moving, literally) in nature and as such are attracted to water.

Fatty-acid tail-types lie opposite heads and are hydrophobic (water-fearing, literally), implying they seek to avoid contact with water. A liposome therefore aligns itself in such a manner that heads create exposed interior and exterior bubble surfaces. There are almost no limits at all to what may undergo encapsulation within such liposome bubbles.

The aspect which renders them quite exciting in this regard is that bubbles can get refilled with vitamin C, which is Ascorbic acid. This characteristic is rather vital since encasing of vitamin C in this manner renders it more available readily within the body. There have been no definite determinations as to why this happens, but several theories still have been postulated about the phenomenon.

One such holds that the wear and tear as well as stress performed on an average cell may be the cause. As cells proceed with normal functioning within your body, they may sustain some damage that makes them deteriorate at faster rate. Human body cells are structured much in similar manner as vitamin C encapsulation.

These reach out stripping away some of the material as nutrients pass by the cells, therefore cannibalizing it for repair of its own cellular membrane that is damaged. The act in turn triggers some form of leakage by the capsule, so releasing Vitamin C present within. Still, one other theory suggests that as a person ingests Vitamin C encapsulated with liposome, this nutrient gets routed to the liver.

Here, the capsules get broken down leading to release of Vitamin C into the bloodstream. Both these processes may appear plausible, yet such a conclusion can only be hypothetical up until discovery is made of exactly what transport mechanisms and processes are in play.

Neverheless, whatever method of transport is applied, studies demonstrate with acceptable consistency that nutrients are encapsulated with liposome can be administered into a human body with better efficiency than regular oral applications. This renders the system a superb alternative to the pills and powders which are more conventional. Not everything is known concerning the physiological mechanisms of human beings. Encapsulation done by liposomes is however a commendable theoretical approach.

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Security for Paper and Electronic Medical Records Based on HIPAA’s PHI Security Rules

The responsibility for maintaining confidential data can never rest while the PHI resides in paper or electronic form. We need to be slow to judge the mishaps of others without knowing the extent of their diligence in maintaining effective security. We must recognize that the relatively low number of security breeches is more due to honesty than procedures.

An article on a breach of PHI security recently made my eye. Uncharacteristically it involved the theft of paper records that were taken by a janitorial worker who had been cleared and was given access to the medical office. What stuck me was the lack of information about security measures that were in place to prevent such a loss. No mention was made of the screening provided by the hired janitorial service to clear this employee. From what I read, that process sure missed the mark but we do not know why.

Not knowing why this employee skated by the screening leaves us with no measure against which we can test our security testing requirements.

Whatever was done internally by the practice obviously did not produce the desired results either. However, if we knew what had been done along with any note or suggestions as to what else could have been done to prevent the theft, we'd all be in a better place to scrutinize our own efforts to protect these vital medical records.

Sometimes that information was left out intentionally so as to not assist others who wish to gain unwanted access to the medical records of other people. I agree, let's not teach the would-be criminal. Nonetheless, some information would be helpful. Otherwise we are left to re-examine our internal security, perhaps needlessly, not even knowing what weakness we are looking for.

In the end, there is a financial limit to how much security can be provided. When that is reasonably in place we need to perform regular reviews and make updates when necessary. We need to be ever vigilant, working the process rather than implementing new procedures which may be less effective than those we have in place and certainly take away from effective monitoring of our security work.

Let's give credit where it is due and recognize there is no system or set of procedures that can not be beaten. Honesty still plays a key role in protecting any asset. To think otherwise is to miss the mark. This is a very personal business. We treat people in our clinics. We hire people and work with them in a cooperative effort to provide the best services possible including the protection of confidential medical and other information.

Our reason for being is business is to provide medical care. Safe guarding PHI is an important part of that service but it is a subordinate part. It remains a business decision to determine when sufficient security is in place.

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Contract Manufacturing and Its Processes Benefit Everybody

From encapsulation to packaging and distribution, contract manufacturing plays a vital role in the pharmaceutical industry. This type of manufacturing is a method of outsourcing a company's job to another in a mutually beneficial manner. On one hand, the contractors share a symbiotic relationship with the medicine manufacturers; the entire processes, on the other, help raise the standards of the products and serve the clients and customers better. Certain advantages have made this process a viable option for many people in this industry.

Reduction in the cost of operation and production

Costs matter. When the medicine manufacturers go to the contract manufacturing companies, the former gets several cost benefits from the deal. If they could find a reliable contractor, they can save the extra cost on maintaining facility, infrastructure and work force. There are possible expenses as well, for insurance, training and the like. Typically, these jobs are outsourced to companies located in a region where there is a cost-effective supply of manpower and materials.

Facilitation in the functioning of the businesses

This entire job process is ideal for companies that specialize in one particular range of product. They can further narrow down their roles, while leaving the spare functions to the contractors. For example, they can focus on producing the ingredients of a capsule, and then the contractors can take up the encapsulation job. This can also accelerate the entire process of operation and production because in many cases, most contractors specialize in only the items that they have the contract for. Beside, they have the resources what the medicine manufacturers would not have.

Production of the best quality products

Specialization from both the parties would bear on the finished product. The medicine manufacturers would become more reliable, the contractors would become more trustworthy and the customers would be getting only quality products. Concisely, this benefits everyone.

A win-win situation for all

We can see this approach benefits everyone. Yet it is not limited to only a few areas. This is most evident in creation of more jobs and the push to the economy. If both the parties keep up to their roles, then they can produce more benefits that would affect more people.


Therefore, there are so many handsome benefits as well as advantages disguised in the process. From cost-effective benefits to the mutual gains, medicine manufacturers as well as contract manufacturers have a lot to gain from their shared enterprises.

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Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer In Women – Act on Them Before It’s Too Late!

As a very common perception, men are more likely to get affected from bladder cancer. However, recent studies have shown that women are also under high risk of cancer in the bladder. Although many of the signs and symptoms are not considered as prominent occurrence of cancer, these signs are important allergs and should not be ignored. Some vital symptoms indicative bladder cancer in women are

• Hematuria – Presence of blood in urine is termed as hematuria. During the very early stages of bladder cancer, blood is not visible. Only pathological tests under a microscope can detect the presence of blood. During the advancement of disease, blood is visible and sometimes even blood clots are found in urine.
• Frequency of urination – Most women who suffer from bladder cancer complain of very frequent urge for urination. At times, this urge does not result in actual urine discharge and gives a feeling of uneasiness.
• Pain – Urination becomes painful and the patient complains about the very low quantities of urine discharge. This condition increases their visits to the restroom.
• Growth of mass – During severe stages of cancer, a sizable mass is felt during physical inspection. The location of the mass is in the pelvic cavity and may add abdominal pain to a few patients.

The presence of all these signs is indicative of cancer in the bladder. However for further confirmation various pathological and medical tests are available.

Diagnosis of symptoms bladder cancer in women

In case you experience any symptoms bladder cancer, there are various types of tests that can identify the presence of cancerous growth in the bladder. It is a better idea to visit a healthcare expert for accurate diagnosis. Some of the predominant tests delivered to diagnose bladder cancer are:

• Physical examination – Pelvis, rectum, and abdomen is examined for occurrences of abnormal mass growth.
• Urine tests – Pathological tests of urine can identify cancerous or malignant cells. Even trace of blood presence is detectable in urine tests.
• Cystoscopy – In this test, urethral insertion of a tube is done to inspect the bladder wall. Even doctors can collect samples of cells for further laboratory tests. The inserted tube has a light and a micro-camera for precise viewing.
• Pyelogram – A colored pigment is induced into the blood to make bladder visible under X-rays.

Several options are available for early diagnosis and further accurate treatment. Like in all cancer cases, early diagnosis leads to a faster recovery.

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Robotics in Surgery – Redefining the Surgery Process With Endo-Wrist Instruments!

Unparalleled methods of surgery are becoming popular everyday due to its nature of perfection and faster recovery time over to contemporary methods. The absorption of automation rather than robotics in operation rooms has proved to offer precise control on minute detailing. Some great facilities have housed the Da Vinci system for exceptional surgeries. These are minimum invasive surgeries and offer numerous advantages.

There are many benefits due to the precise control on a granular level. Robotic arms are capable of several actions and expert doctors can control these arms from a console. The Endo-wrist instruments attached to these arms play a major role. Some of the most popular instruments are

Energy instruments – These instruments are used for cutting, coagulation, and dissection.

Forceps – These are used for various requirements of gripping during the operation

Retractors – These instruments provide wide area within the operational area for easy maneuverability

Needle drivers – These are used during all suture operations. The DA Vinci surgeon can perform various types of sutures and knotting and can even cut the thread with a built in blade.

The technological advancement in the DA Vinci surgical system is beyond comparison and has the best to offer from any and every perspective during the complex surgeries.

High PSA Counts

On an average, one American out of six sufferers from prostate cancer. Many victims of prostate cancer die without notice the cancer due to aging. The silent nature of the disease is often overlooked. However, there is one source to diagnose the disease and it is through monitoring the PSA level found in the blood. The normal count of PSA in a normal male is 4 ng / ml or lower. However, cancerous growth in the prostate gland secrete more antigens leading to higher counts. Around 30% of people with high PSA level are positive for prostate cancer. Here are the reasons for enhanced levels of antigens in the remaining 70%:

• Inflammation in prostate gland
• Ejaculation
• Excessive bicycling
• Usual fluctuations
• Infections
• Aging

These reasons for increased PSA are not considered serious. However, if higher PSA is detected, the DRE or direct rectal examination is done by the insertion of lubricated gloved finger inside the rectum to identify the anomaly in prostate gland with physical inspection. Making a one sided sentence has serious effects, so use of the proper diagnosis method is highly recommended.

Unparalleled methods of surgery are becoming popular everyday due to its nature of perfection and faster recovery time over to contemporary methods.

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The Gift in Blurred Boundaries

I have blurred boundaries. It takes me no time at all to slip into another's shoes. I can feel their conflict, their hurt, their misunderstandings, their pain. I can walk a mile in their moccasins, or Crocs or Sandals.

Like an actor walking into a part I can inhabit another, become another, feel another's conflict, grief, pain and struggles. It's not as easy for me to let all of that go and be able to feel my own joy.

And yet, given a choice, I would have it no other way. Practice makes perfect, I'm told. And so during this month, the month that my grandson Gregory died of SIDS, I do not only remember him, I do not only feel sad that he's not in my world any longer, but I miss all those other babies that I held and loved for every one of them was “mine.” I walked in the shoes of their mother, their sisters, their dads, and anyone else who loved them. I sacrificed enough tears for all of them. Not separate. I was one of those mom's, grandmas, aunties, dads, brother, sisters etc. I grieved as though they had been born to me. As I said, I have blurry boundaries.

But it was that very ability, dare I say gift of mine, my ability to make myself separate, that also allowed me to see life from many different views and never to feel alone. I've missed people I loved when they moved to another place wherever through relocation on earth or into death but I've really not felt lonely that I remember.

The ability to live a storied life, is much like the ability to put yourself into a characters place in a book or a movie. It allows you to get close to feeling the pain they feel, the love they feel, they allow you to practice or be an intern in life. I've learned as much from others' tragedies as from my own. I know there's nothing special about me and my pain, I'm no more special than anyone else.

The boundary thing is something that is foreign to me. Without I know for sure that someone is going to hurt me because they have before or because because I recognize what's a danger to me because of who I am, I have no need to set boundaries that separate me from another. It's an illusion for me. That kind of separateness is hard for me to digest. Only when someone is going to hurt me for sure, or I'm going to hurt someone else because of my inability to treat them in ways that they need to be treated because of my own needs, do I set a boundary … and that is as much for the other as for me. I play fair, and I know that.

Wearing another's situation, fitting into it perfectly – or not fitting into it at all – has helped me adjust to my own life, and to make better choices. I have no knowledge of “forgiveness.” I mean if I can understand it, there's no need to forgive. That's God's job if He judges, not mine. In the rest of life I'm like a kid, if someone pisses me off, I get mad, I throw a fit or not, and before I know it, I let it go. Without they're mean kids. Then I just do not want to hang out with them.

Blurred boundaries have caused me terrible pain sometimes but they also saved me lots unfair cause I never felt alone, never thought life or fate or God was picking on me. It also allowed me to forgive myself for my mistakes and let me live a rich and varied life.

IT took me past the boundaries of time and place because my father read to me from when I was a very small child, great classics and works of the great philosophers and because of that I had a sense of myself in time and in eternity. I could have been those Spartan youths that had to build their strength enduring physical pain, I could have been those stoics that had do bear the pain and not let it master them. I could have been anyone at any time.

So it is with gratitude I impress the me I know right now, and know that while I was taking care of others I was also caring of myself.

Now, I'll continue to work on finding and feeling my joy.

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How to Look for the Best Medical Transcription Agency

The health care industry has truly evolved. The medical field has adapted to the changing environment of technology and it has certainly made life a lot easier and less stressful. In a hospital or clinic setting for example, doctors and nurses used to make notes relating to a patient's condition using pen and paper. Nowadays, a doctor's orders are simply dictated over the telephone or with the use of a digital voice recorder and the voice files are sent to a certified medical transcription agency where the file will be thoroughly processed. After the files are transcribed, it will be sent back to the institution via secure servers. Such is technology in the new millennium. But because of the influx of agencies providing these services all over the world, choosing the right one can be a bit difficult.

Choose Companies via the Internet

The worldwide web has changed the way people do things. Today, you can avail of high quality services provided by medical transcription agencies through the internet – and they are reasonably priced too. However, make sure that you are dealing with certified companies only, those with years of experience under their belt. Before you make your final decision, try to come up with a list of the advantages and disadvantages of each and then carefully make your conclusion. Look for positive testimonials on their web page or get recommendations from your family and friends. Stay away from company websites that do not provide clear information on their services. A professional agency provides all the necessary details to attract clients. With the convenience provided by the internet, there is no reason for you not to be able to acquire the services of an excellent transcriptionist.

Ask Questions

Do not be afraid to put out questions to the transcription agency. As a potential client, you have every right to ask. Ask where they provide online medical transcription services and how they go about the process. Ask for the qualifications of their transcriptionists – where and how well they were trained, their methods of transcription, certificates accepted and the like. Also, talk to the people who you are most likely to be dealing with all the time. It is important that you are in good terms with them because this would eliminate added stress on your part.

Give Clear-Cut Expectations

The success of every project is not solely dependent on one party. Both sides must be able to give clear-cut expectations so that needs are met. Deadline, format and quality expectations must be communicated clearly to prevent awkward situations. Even if both parties are only dealing with each other online, miscommunication can be avoided as long as the channels remain open. Medical transcription agencies are oftentimes flexible. They see to it that they are able to meet their client's needs, provide high-quality work and give more than what is expected from them.

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